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Doxycycline Hyclate (Doxycycline) is a potent broad-spectrum antibiotic which, like Ciproxin, is used to fight a range of bacterial infections.
Can be used to treat numerous bacterial infections such as urinary tract infections; STDs; Pelvic Inflammatory Disease; Gonorrhoea; and fevers caused by ticks, fleas and lice; and chronic infections of the eye (trachoma).
Doxycycline Hyclate (Doxycycline) is a potent broad-spectrum antibiotic which, like Ciproxin, is used to fight a range of bacterial infections. Doxycycline Hyclate is also a highly effective treatment for osteoarthritis and a reliable arthritis treatment.
Doxycycline belongs to a group of antibiotics known as tetracyclines which have been tried and tested for over 40 years. As a tetracycline antibiotic, Doxycycline can be used to treat numerous bacterial infections such as urinary tract infections; STDs; Pelvic Inflammatory Disease; Gonorrhoea; and fevers caused by ticks, fleas and lice; and chronic infections of the eye (trachoma).
Doxycycline is also an anti-inflammatory, which means it can help slow the progression of various types of osteoarthritis. This makes Doxycycline ideal as an osteoarthritis treatment and as a relief for pain and arthritis.
Doxycycline doesn’t actually kill bacteria, instead it works by a process of bacteria immobilisation. Doxycycline prevents bacteria from replicating by inhibiting their protein production. This bacteria immobilisation slows the growth of bacteria in the body.
Doxycycline is often used to treat bacterial infections in preference to other tetracycline antibiotics because it has what is known as a long half-life, and because it is absorbed reliably. Having a long half-life means susceptible infections can be treated with Doxycycline using a less frequent dosage regime.
Studies have shown that Doxycycline is effective as an arthritis treatment, and is particularly useful in the treatment of osteoarthritis and osteoarthritis symptoms.
Research results reported in 2005 revealed that treatment with Doxycycline inhibits the breakdown of joint cartilage in osteoarthritis. This makes it effective in slowing the progression of osteoarthritis and relieving osteoarthritis symptoms.
Researchers undertook a 30-month clinical trial, comparing the effectiveness of Doxycyline as an osteoarthritis treatment with a placebo in around 400 women with osteoarthritis symptoms in the knee.
The women who had taken Doxycycline as an osteoarthritis knee treatment had 33 per cent less joint space narrowing (indicating less cartilage loss) than the group taking the placebo. Testimonials from the women who had taken Doxycycline compared to testimonials from the placebo group were also less likely to include a worsening of knee pain. Doxycycline therefore has promising implications as an osteoarthritis knee treatment.
Osteoarthritis is a disease of the joints, often referred to as ‘wear and tear’ arthritis, which affects almost everybody as they get older. Osteoarthritis in women is particularly common.
Osteoarthritis occurs when the cartilage becomes thin and uneven, sometimes wearing out altogether. At the same time, the joint capsule gets swollen with synovial fluid. The symptoms of Osteoarthritis are joint stiffness and pain, reduced movement range and swelling of the affected joints.
Osteoarthritis is not hereditary, but there are a number of factors known to increase the risk of developing osteoarthritis, chief amongst them being obesity.
And as part of the natural life cycle, Osteoarthritis in women often occurs after the menopause.
The ingredients for Doxycycline are particularly effective for use as an arthritis treatment because they are reliably absorbed into the body, and have what is known as a long half-life.
This means that a less frequent dosage regime can be adopted – often just once daily – when treating susceptible infections. Doxycycline is sometimes used in preference to other tetracycline antibiotics for that reason. The ingredients for Doxycycline also give it the advantage of being suitable for patients with renal impairment, unlike some other tetracyclines.
For most infections, the usual dose of Doxycyline Hyclate is 200mg on the first day, as a single dose, followed by 100mg daily. Higher doses may need to be given for urinary tract infections and other severe infections.
Doxycycline is a powerful antibiotic that has been tried and tested in the fight against a wide range of modern bacterial infections. It is also a proven weapon against arthritis and a recognised osteoarthritis treatment. Add it to your antiaging arsenal today!
PHYSICAL AND PHARMACEUTICAL PROPERTIES:
Synonyms: Dossiciclina Iclato; Doxycycline Hyclate (BANM, rINNM); Doxycyclini Hyclas.
Chemical Name: Doxycycline hydrochloride hemiethanolate hemihydrate. Molecular Formula: C(22)H(24)N(2)O(8),HCl,1/2C(2)H -(5)OH, -1/2H(2)O Molecular Weight: 512.9 A yellow hygroscopic crystalline powder. Doxycycline hydrochloride 115 mg is approximately equivalent to 100 mg of doxycycline. Ph. Eur. solubilities are: freely soluble in water and in methyl alcohol; sparingly soluble in alcohol; practically insoluble in ether; dissolves in solutions of alkali hydroxides and carbonates. USP solubilities are: soluble in water; slightly soluble in alcohol; practically insoluble in chloroform and in ether; soluble in solutions of alkali hydroxides and carbonates. A 1% solution in water has a pH of 2 to 3. Store in airtight containers. Protect from light. Incompatibilities. Preparations of doxycycline hydrochloride have an acid pH and incompatibility may reasonably be expected with alkaline preparations or with drugs unstable at low pH. Reduced antimicrobial activity has been reported in vitro when doxycycline hydrochloride was mixed with riboflavine.
ADVERSE EFFECTS AND PRECAUTIONS:
As for Tetracycline Hydrochloride. Gastrointestinal disturbances are reported to be less frequent than with tetracycline and doxycycline may also cause less tooth discoloration.
Oesophageal ulceration may be a particular problem if capsules or tablets are taken with insufficient fluid or in a recumbent posture: doxycycline should be taken with at least half a glass of water, in an upright position, and one hour or more before retiring to bed. There is some evidence from studies in animals that preparations of the base, which have a higher pH, cause less oesophageal damage than those of the more acid hydrochloride. Dispersible tablets or liquid formulations should be used in elderly patients, who may be at greater risk of oesophageal injury.
Unlike many tetracycline’s, doxycycline does not appear to accumulate in patients with impaired renal function, and aggravation of renal impairment may be less likely.
Anosmia or dysosmia (absent or impaired sense of smell) have occasionally been reported in patients receiving doxycycline, although the association has not been definitely established.
For the suggestion that doxycycline might be porphyrinogenic.
As for Tetracycline Hydrochloride. Doxycycline has a lower affinity for binding with calcium than many tetracycline’s. In consequence its absorption is less likely to be affected by milk or food, although it is still affected by antacids and iron preparations. The metabolism of doxycycline may be accelerated by drugs that induce hepatic enzymes such as alcohol (chronic use); antiepileptics including carbamazepine, phenobarbitone, and phenytoin; and rifampicin. It has been suggested that doxycycline could increase cyclosporin concentrations, but evidence for this seems to be scant.
As for Tetracycline Hydrochloride, Doxycycline is more active than tetracycline against many bacterial species including the enterococci and various anaerobes. Cross-resistance is common although some tetracycline-resistant Staphylococcus aureus respond to doxycycline. Doxycycline is also reported to be more active against protozoa, particularly Plasmodium spp.
For the general pharmacokinetics of the tetracycline’s, see Tetracycline Hydrochloride.
Doxycycline hydrochloride is readily and almost completely absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and absorption is not significantly affected by the presence of food in the stomach or duodenum. Mean peak plasma concentrations of 2.6 micrograms per mL have been reported 2 hours after a 200-mg dose by mouth, falling to 1.45 micrograms per mL at 24 hours. After intravenous infusion of the same dose peak plasma concentrations are briefly somewhat higher, but become very similar to those after oral administration following equilibration into the tissues.
From 80 to 95% of doxycycline in the circulation is reported to be bound to plasma proteins. Its biological half-life varies from about 12 to 24 hours. Doxycycline is more lipid-soluble than tetracycline. It is widely distributed in body tissues and fluids.
In patients with normal renal function about 40% of a dose is slowly excreted in the urine although more is excreted by this route if urine is made alkaline. However, the majority of a dose of doxycycline is excreted in the faeces following chelation in the intestines. Although doxycycline has been reported to undergo some inactivation in the liver, some sources consider this doubtful; however, the kinetics of doxycycline have been reportedly altered in patients receiving drugs which induce hepatic metabolism.
Doxycycline is stated not to accumulate significantly in patients with renal impairment although excretion in the urine is reduced; increased amounts of doxycycline are excreted in the faeces in these patients. Nevertheless there have been reports of some accumulation in renal failure. Removal of doxycycline by haemodialysis is insignificant.
Concentrations of doxycycline in CSF of patients with neurological manifestations of Lyme disease receiving doxycycline 200 mg daily by mouth ranged from 0.4 to 2.5 micrograms per mL at 4 hours after a dose. (1) This represented 3 to 36% of the serum concentration at that time and was reported to be adequate for the treatment of the infection
USES AND ADMINISTRATION:
Doxycycline is a tetracycline derivative with uses similar to those of tetracycline. It may sometimes be preferred to other tetracycline’s in the treatment of sensitive infections because of its fairly reliable absorption and its long half-life which permits less frequent (often once daily) dosage. It also has the advantage that it can be given (with care) to patients with renal insufficiency. However, relatively high doses may need to be given for urinary-tract infections because of its low renal excretion. Doxycycline is normally administered by mouth as doxycycline or its various derivatives. Doses are expressed in terms of doxycycline. The usual dose is 200 mg of doxycycline on the first day (as a single dose or 100 mg repeated after 12 hours), followed by 100 mg daily. Older children weighing 45 kg or less may be given 4 mg per kg body-weight initially and thereafter 2 mg per kg daily but the effect of tetracycline’s on teeth and bones should be considered. In severe infections the initial dosage is maintained throughout the course of treatment. In patients with sensitive gonococcal infections doxycycline has occasionally been given in a single dose of 300 mg, alone or followed by a second similar dose one hour later. For syphilis, doxycycline 200 or 300 mg is given daily for at least 15 or 10 days, respectively. In the treatment of acne a dose of 50 mg daily may be adequate. For relapsing fever and louse-borne typhus, doxycycline 100 or 200 mg may be given as a single dose. For prophylaxis of scrub typhus, 200 mg may be taken as a single dose.
Doxycycline capsules and tablets should be given with plenty of fluid, with the patient in an upright position, and well before retiring for the night. It may be given with food or milk if gastric irritation occurs. Dispersible tablets or liquid formulations are advisable in elderly patients.
In patients in whom oral therapy is not feasible doxycycline may be given, as the hydrochloride, by slow intravenous infusion of a solution containing 0.1 to 1 mg per mL, in doses equivalent to those by mouth. Infusions should be given over 1 to 4 hours.
Doxycycline is used in some areas for the treatment of chloroquine-resistant falciparum malaria in a dose of 200 mg daily for at least 7 days in combination with quinine. Doxycycline 100 mg daily has been used for prophylaxis in areas of high risk where other drugs are likely to be ineffective, but it is not suitable for extended prophylactic use.
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